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What Is Blepharitis?

Blepharitis is a common inflammatory condition affecting the eyelids, particularly the area around the base of the eyelashes. It occurs when the oil glands at the base of the eyelashes become clogged or malfunction, leading to irritated and inflamed eyelids. Blepharitis can be chronic and may be associated with other eye conditions, such as dry eyes or meibomian gland dysfunction.

There are two main types of blepharitis:

  • Anterior blepharitis: This type affects the front part of the eyelid, where the eyelashes attach. It can be caused by a bacterial infection (usually staphylococcal) or by seborrheic dermatitis, a skin condition characterised by excessive oil production and dandruff-like flakes.

  • Posterior blepharitis: This type affects the inner part of the eyelid that meets the eye. It is often related to meibomian gland dysfunction, which leads to inadequate lipid secretion and a disrupted tear film. Rosacea, a skin condition causing facial redness and inflammation, can also contribute to posterior blepharitis.

Symptoms of blepharitis can include:

  • Red, swollen, or itchy eyelids

  • Flaking or crusting around the eyelashes

  • A gritty or burning sensation in the eyes

  • Excessive tearing or dry eyes

  • Sensitivity to light (photophobia)

  • Eyelashes that grow abnormally or fall out


Blepharitis can be managed with proper eyelid hygiene and care, including regular cleaning of the eyelids with a warm compress and gentle scrubbing using a diluted baby shampoo or commercially available eyelid cleansers. In some cases, your eye care professional may recommend antibiotic or steroid eye drops or ointments, oral antibiotics, or other medications to help control inflammation and infection.

Causes Of Blepharitis

Blepharitis can have various causes, often associated with the dysfunction of the oil glands in the eyelids or bacterial infections. Some common causes of blepharitis include:

Bacterial infections: Staphylococcus bacteria are commonly found on the skin and can cause infections, leading to anterior blepharitis. These bacteria can create a biofilm on the eyelids and eyelashes, contributing to inflammation and irritation.

Seborrheic dermatitis: This skin condition is characterised by excessive oil production and dandruff-like flakes. It can affect the scalp, face, and eyelids, causing anterior blepharitis.

Meibomian gland dysfunction: The meibomian glands, located within the eyelids, are responsible for producing the oily (lipid) layer of the tear film. Dysfunction of these glands can lead to an unstable tear film, increased tear evaporation, and the development of posterior blepharitis.

Rosacea: A skin condition causing facial redness, swelling, and inflammation, rosacea can also affect the eyelids and meibomian glands, resulting in posterior blepharitis.

Allergies: Allergic reactions to eye makeup, contact lens solutions, or other environmental allergens can cause eyelid inflammation and contribute to blepharitis.

Demodex mites: These microscopic mites live on the skin and can infest the eyelashes and eyelids, causing irritation and inflammation, which can contribute to blepharitis.

Dry eye syndrome: Dry eyes and blepharitis often coexist and can exacerbate each other. Dry eye syndrome may cause inflammation that contributes to blepharitis, while blepharitis can disrupt the tear film and lead to dry eye symptoms.

Understanding the specific causes of blepharitis is essential for proper treatment and management. An eye care professional, such as an ophthalmologist or optometrist, can help determine the cause and recommend appropriate treatments to alleviate symptoms and prevent complications.


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Is Blepharitis Hereditary?

There is no direct evidence to suggest that blepharitis itself is hereditary. However, certain risk factors and underlying conditions that may contribute to the development of blepharitis can have a genetic component.


For instance, some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to skin conditions like seborrheic dermatitis or rosacea, which can increase the likelihood of developing blepharitis.


Additionally, certain genetic factors may influence the structure and function of the meibomian glands, affecting their ability to produce and secrete oil properly. This can lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is a common cause of posterior blepharitis.

While hereditary factors may play a role in increasing the risk of developing blepharitis, it is essential to remember that environmental factors, personal hygiene, and overall eye health also contribute to the condition. If you have a family history of blepharitis or related conditions, it is important to maintain good eye hygiene, have regular eye exams, and consult with an eye care professional for proper management and treatment.

Blepharitis Treatment

The treatment of blepharitis focuses on managing symptoms, reducing inflammation, and addressing any underlying causes. Blepharitis is often a chronic condition that may require ongoing maintenance and care. Here are some common treatment options and self-care measures for blepharitis:

Eyelid hygiene: Regular cleaning of the eyelids is essential to control blepharitis. Use a warm compress to soften the debris and oils on the eyelids, followed by gentle scrubbing with a clean cotton swab or a commercially available eyelid cleansing pad. You can also use diluted baby shampoo or a specialised eyelid cleanser.

Warm compresses: Applying a warm compress to the closed eyelids for 10-15 minutes, several times a day, can help to loosen any crusts, unblock the meibomian glands, and relieve discomfort.

Over-the-counter eye drops: Lubricating eye drops, or artificial tears can help alleviate dry eye symptoms associated with blepharitis.

Anti-inflammatory medications: Topical corticosteroid eye drops or ointments can be prescribed by your eye care professional to help reduce inflammation. These medications should be used under medical supervision, as long-term use can have side effects.

Antibiotics: Topical antibiotic ointments or eye drops, such as erythromycin or bacitracin, may be prescribed to control bacterial infections. In more severe cases, oral antibiotics like doxycycline or tetracycline may be recommended.

Antifungal medications: If seborrheic dermatitis is a contributing factor, antifungal medications, such as ketoconazole, may be prescribed to control the condition.

Tea tree oil: For blepharitis associated with Demodex mites, diluted tea tree oil may be used as a lid scrub to help eradicate the mites.

Management of underlying conditions: If blepharitis is associated with rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, or meibomian gland dysfunction, treating these conditions can help improve blepharitis symptoms.

It is essential to consult an eye care professional, such as an ophthalmologist or optometrist, for a proper evaluation and treatment plan tailored to your specific needs and circumstances.

Topics To Cover When Discussing Blepharitis With An Eye Care Professional

When discussing blepharitis with an eye care professional here are some of the topics to discuss.

Causes: Understanding the potential causes of blepharitis, such as bacterial infections, seborrheic dermatitis, meibomian gland dysfunction, rosacea, and Demodex mites, can help guide treatment and management strategies.

Symptoms: Sharing your personal experience with blepharitis symptoms, such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, or crusting of the eyelids, can help others understand the condition better and provide support.

Diagnosis: Discussing the diagnostic process, which usually involves a thorough eye examination and assessment of the eyelids, eyelashes, and meibomian glands, can help clarify the condition's nature and extent.

Treatment and management: Sharing information about various treatment options, including eyelid hygiene, warm compresses, lubricating eye drops, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory medications, can help others understand how to manage blepharitis effectively.

Lifestyle adjustments: Discussing practical tips for managing blepharitis at home, such as avoiding eye makeup, using a humidifier, or taking breaks during prolonged screen time, can provide valuable insights for others dealing with the condition.

Emotional impact: Sharing personal experiences about the emotional impact of living with a chronic eye condition like blepharitis, such as frustration, self-consciousness, or the need for ongoing care, can help others empathise and offer support.

Seeking professional help: Encouraging others to consult an eye care professional, such as an ophthalmologist or optometrist, for proper evaluation and treatment of blepharitis, can help ensure they receive the appropriate care.

Coping strategies: Sharing tips on how to cope with the discomfort and irritation associated with blepharitis, such as finding a support network, practising relaxation techniques, or seeking professional counselling, can be beneficial for others facing similar challenges.

Remember, it is crucial to seek medical advice from an eye care professional for a proper evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment plan tailored to your specific needs and circumstances.

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